This piece is titled El Tulisan (1859 / 1860) by English artist C. W. Andrews. It was published in the Philippine periodical Ilustracion Filipina. Our descriptions of Andrews and Ilustracion Filipina are in our previous installment 11.7.
When we say the Barong Tagalog was worn by all segments of society every day in the Philippines during this period, we do mean all segments, including those on the fringes of society. The male subject of this piece can be called a highwayman, a bandit or a robber. This is a man lying in wait to rob travelers on a public road. He appears to be hiding behind a tree amongst all the wild vegetation of the Philippine countryside.
He rests his rifle in front of him, and the rifle’s bayonet hangs at his side. His head rests on his knee as he may be waiting for a good while for his next victims. El Tulisan wears a blue work barong, possibly made of a comfortable and breathable fabric like cotton, ramie or linen. He also wears short white knickers and a straw salakot (helmet-like native headwear with a wide brim) with a putong (head wrap) on his head.