The illustration shown here is titled Costumes das Filippinas - Combate de Gallos [Costumes of the Philippines - Cockfighting] (1858). The artist is unknown. The drawing depicts a very common theme and pastime in Philippine culture at the time: the fighting of roosters.
In this piece, a group of men with one woman are participating in a cockfight in the Philippine countryside. The two men in the center stand squared up in a fighting stance while holding their roosters in the air to face each other. Four other men and one woman surround them to watch. A man to the left carries his own rooster.
The two men in the center and the two to the left all wear solid or striped colorful Barong Tagalog, pants of various colors and patterns and some form of headwear - either salakot (wide brimmed helmet-like native headwear), western style hats or putong (native head wrap). The two men to the right wear either camisa de chino or Barong Tagalog of various colors, dark knickers or work pants and putong. The woman to the far right wears a striped camisa (shirt), a long saya (skirt) and tapis (overskirt).